Monday, January 20, 2020

Affirmative Action Essay -- essays research papers

Since the beginning of time there has been prejudice and hate. Adam and Eve hated snakes. Jews hated Jesus. Sugar Ray Leonard hated Tommy Hearns. Prejudice is caused by two things: ignorance and hate. Prejudice and mistreatment has existed in this country, first with American-Indians and then later with African-Americans and many other minorities. The selling and trading of slaves is a shadow that has been hanging over the heads of white Americans for two centuries. Some people feel that it is the white-American's duty to pay the black population back. According to Spencer Perkins, co-author of More than Equals: Racial Healing for the Sake of Gospel, in reference to the long-standing racial divisions in America, "It took us 300 years to separate ourselves like this, it's going to take a while to undo that." (Perkins 26) Affirmative action is designed to give minorities, such as blacks, the opportunity to maintain jobs in our prejudicial society. For those who support Affirmative Action they define it as a way to give the disadvantaged a chance at the "American dream." Those who do not support Affirmative Action define it as giving minorities positions that they are not qualified to have. As Mr. Khalenberg, head editor of The New Republic says, "we will still reward those who play the victim" (Khalenberg 27). Just imagine that you have gone through six years of college and have gotten your degree. You go looking for a job and even though they are tough to come by you manage to get an interview with a well-known company. The interviewer tells you that you and one other person are equally qualified and in the running for the job. You get a call later telling you that you didn't get the job because the company had to hire a minority. You would most likely be angry, right? The purpose of this paper is to show the differences in how people feel about the issues involved with affirmative action. This paper was written to give different views on affirmative action. First I will give a little background and general information on the subject. Secondly, I will show how those that are in support of affirmative action feel. I will then balance the arguement out by showing how those who oppose affirmative action feel. I will also explore the minorities that are also against affirmative action. Finally, I will tell what causes the consequences that affirmative... ...America today. Because of the horrid history of this nation, the disgust directed at "White America" is not surprising, however, it does seem surprising to many Americans that there are minorities who are against affirmative action. This country, whether we will admit it or not, was built on the blood and sweat of minorities. Therefore it should not be unexpected that minorities would like a fair share of what this country has the to offer. If this happens, maybe minorities will someday have the opportunity to walk our "streets of gold." Works Cited Fredrickson, George M. Racism : A Short History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002 Kahlenberg, Richard. "Class, Not Race." The New Republic April 3, 1995: 21-27. O’Gara, Juliane. Making Workplaces Work. Washington, DC: Business and Professional Women’s Foundation. 1995 Perkins, Spencer and Chris Rice. More than Equals: Racial Healing for the Sake of the Gospel, Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1993. Rosen, Jeffery. â€Å"Is Affirmative Action Doomed?† New Republic 17 Oct. 1994: 25+ Waller, James. Face to Face: The Changing State of Racism Across America, New York: Plenum Publishing Corp., 1998.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Joint Venture of the France Based Company Alcatel

A joint venture, according to Adler and Graham (1989),along with mergers and acquisitions, licensing and distribution agreements, and sales of products and services – critical aspects of all such interorganizational relationships, are face-to-face negotiations. This would mean the interaction between people. In today’s society, as the world becomes much more globalized than we could ever think of, with the fast growth of the internet industry, we are connected with people from another country at an instant. However, business to business deals and negotiations are still at a stage where face-to-face communication is still required. As interpersonal communication is brought onto the table, with the clash of different cultures as companies today all have the tendency to become globalizes and multi-nationalized, the understanding of another’s culture and cultural values plays an important role in the negotiation, and the interactions thereafter. As the proportion of foreign to domestic trade increases, so does the frequency of business negotiation between people from different countries and cultures. To successfully manage these negotiations, businesspeople need to know how to influence and communicate with members of cultures other than their own (Adler and Grahamd (1989)). Through the analysis of the case study on the joint venture of the France based company Alcatel and the U. S. based company Lucent Technologies, issues of cross-cultural management, the weakness and strength of an international joint venture, including the rights and wrongs of the particular case study will be discussed. As Shenkar (2001)said in an article, establishing a measure gauging the â€Å"distance† between cultures has understandably presented an even greater challenge. At the end, recommendations will be provided for future companies seeking joint ventures. Body The major differences between the initial negotiation in 2001 and the final successful negotiation in 2006 was the division of power. In 2001, in the original negotiation, the base company was Lucent, which was based in the US. Because it was a joint venture, the amount of power on Alcatel cannot be decided. Due to this inequality, the joint venture was called off in 2001. In 2006, as this inequality no longer stands between the two companies, it established the final negotiation of the joint venture, and at least in the beginning, both companies were satisfied with the negotiation. According to Barkema and Vermeulen (1997), differences in uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation cause problems. Differences in how IJV partners perceive and adapt to opportunities and threats in their environment are more difficult to resolve. Cultural differences regarding power distance, individualism and masculinity are more easily resolved because they are mainly reflected in different attitudes towards the management of personnel, something firms can make explicit agreements about before entering the partnership. As Berkema and Vermeulen (1997) already said, issues on power distance, individualism and masculinity are considered to be more easily resolved cultural issues, and realizing the fact that if the joint venture between Alcatel and Lucent Technologies could not even solve the more easy problems, it is pointless to say the success of the negotiation. Since the merger in 2006, it is now the fifth year for the joint venture to be in business. With the resignation of Russo, the company is now led by The company is under the leadership of Chief Executive Officer Ben Verwaayen and the non-executive Chairman of the Board is Philippe Camus. Verwaayen and Camus joined the company in the third quarter of 2008 after Alcatel-Lucent's first CEO Patricia Russo and first Chairman Serge Tchuruk resigned. For 2008, the company posted revenues of â‚ ¬16. 984 billion and a net loss of â‚ ¬5. 215 billion (Alcatel-Lucent (2009)). As Powell and Dent-Micallef (1997) found in their article, ITs alone have not produced sustainable performance advantages in the retail industry, but that some firms have gained advantages by using ITs to leverage intangible, complementary human and business resources such as flexible culture, strategic planning–IT integration, and supplier relationships. The results support the resource-based approach, and help to explain why some firms outperform others using the same ITs, and why successful IT users often fail to sustain IT-based competitive advantages. Alcatel-Lucent has done what it was suppose to do a long time ago, which was to appoint leaders based on expertise, and not nationality. As the entire industry was going downhill during 2006, for the past few years, with the correct leadership of Verwaayen and Camus, the joint venture is in much better shape than it was before. As Tchuruk commented initially that the merger is â€Å"a giant transatlantic experiment in multicultural diversity,† the company has run into some major cross-cultural problems since its merger in 2006. One major issue is the fact that the appointed CEO of the joint venture could not effectively run the business, resulting in six quarterly losses, which led to the restructuring of the company, and a cut of 16,500 jobs in total. As the case study states, it was a poor decision to appoint leaders based on their nationality rather than skills. For the time that Russo was CEO, she struggled greatly to bring together a company that consisted of two entirely different cultures, especially when she has no background knowledge of any French language at all. In addition, because there was a lack of understanding between the cultures, the two companies, although formed as a joint venture, were literally pushed into each other out of desperation because of the down sliding industry. However, more importantly, it was the cultural clash that brought the JV into a poor state initially. As Adler, Doktor, and Redding (1986) wrote in their article, with the growing shift of business from the Atlantic to the Pacific Basin, East-West cultural differences are becoming increasingly significant. Research in developmental psychology, sociology, and anthropology shows that there are major differences among the cognitive processes of people from different cultures. In the era of the global corporation, cultural diversity has to be recognized, understood, and appropriately used in organizations. It is suggested that cross-cultural management would greatly benefit from comparative studies considering the impact of the cognitive aspects of culture on managerial practice. Moving forward as a combined company, the JV faces great competition from low-cost Chinese rivals, and as the internet technology is increasingly changing the industry, Alcatel-Lucent is faced with much deeper challenges as demand in the entire industry is decreasing tremendously. Yet one challenge would also be the challenge to integrate the French culture with that of the American Culture. As Shenkar (2001) pointed out, establishing a measure gauging the â€Å"distance† between cultures has understandably presented an even greater challenge. With the globalization of the firm into the Eastern side of the world, and with the JV servicing clients all over the globe, it is not hard to imagine the importance of cross-cultural management as the firm takes its role onto the global stage. In Ralston et al. (1993)’s research on onvergence/divergence of managerial values, the four Western-developed measures (Machiavellianism, locus of control, intolerance of ambiguity and dogmatism) and the four dimensions of the Eastern-developed Chinese Value Survey (Confucian dynamism, human-heartedness, integration, and moral discipline) were used to find that often times both culture and the business environment interact to create a unique set of managerial values in a country. It is the values of the management, the values of a company, that makes up the success of an industry. Conclusion Soderberg and Holden (2002) defines cross cultural management as a discipline of international management focusing on cultural encounters between what are perceived as well-defined and homogeneous entities: the organization and the nation-state, and offering tools to handle cultural differences seen as sources of conflict or miscommunication. However, in the business world today, with its transnational companies that face the challenges of the management of global knowledge networks and multicultural project teams, interacting and collaborating across boundaries using global communication technologies. There is the need for an alternative approach which acknowledges the growing complexity of inter- and intra-organizational connections and identities, and offers theoretical concepts to think about organizations and multiple cultures in a globalizing business context. Today’s world has become a big clash of all different types of culture. Not only it is seen in the business world, but this clash of cultures has become part of today’s society, and the whole world. This phenonmenon not only suggests more research topics for scholars, as Thomas and Mueller (2001) said in their study, that the relationship between culture and four personality characteristics commonly associated with entrepreneurial motivation. By demonstrating systematic variation in entrepreneurial characteristics across cultures, we raise important questions about the boundaries of international entrepreneurship research and the challenges of transcending them, in the real world, cross-cultural management is also becoming more important and is discussed and faced by many entrepreneurs in the business world. With the case study of Alcatel from France and Lucent Technologies from United States as an example, it has proven the fact that the importance of understanding the different cultures that one’s engaging in, and the importance of acknowledging cross-cultural management has become a requirement for any company leading to a JV or entering into a foreign country. Everyone country has its own unique culture, and every country has its own set of rules. In order to gain profit, in order to become globalized, one must take the time to learn about the culture, and go by their rules, because ultimately, in the business world, you are never alone.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway Essay - 1871 Words

Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway â€Å"Imagination is the one weapon in the war against reality.† -Jules de Gaultier Set just after one of England’s worst tragedies, Virginia Woolf’s 1925 novel Mrs. Dalloway is a vivid picture of the effects of World War I on London’s high society, often in glaring contrast to the effects of shell shock suffered by war veteran Septimus Smith. For members of high society, the War’s impact is largely indirect, mainly affecting their conversations at posh social functions. Although the war has had little impact on these people, some strive to develop a deeper understanding of the War’s main consequence: death. For Septimus, who has endured the direct impact of the War as a soldier, however, the memories†¦show more content†¦Although a small point, it is necessary to add that even Septimus’s wife, Rezia, though not in the same social circle as Clarissa, sees the impacts of the War as ordinary. When reflecting on Septimus’s tendency to talk to his dead friend, Evans, Rezia thinks, â€Å"[Evans] had seemed a nice quiet man; a great friend of Septimus’s, and he had been killed in the War. But such things happen to everyone. Everyone has friends who were killed in the War† (64). This statement is to Rezia a mere fact, which highlights that she, like those in Clarissa’s circle, is also blissfully ignorant of the horrors involved in the War, drawing attention to the insurmountable gulf that exists between Septimus’s experience of the War, and everyone else’s imagined perception of it. Indeed, the relaying of information as mentioned above often serves as entertainment for the upper class throughout the novel, even if the entertainment is derived from such a serious topic as war-related casualties. Even though millions were killed, and many injured, Clarissa’s class typically cannot comprehend the brutality experienced by soldiers in combat, much less the unrelenting stresses and images that follow them long after they have left the battlefield. However, high society cannot ignore such cases of human suffering, so they become a sort of fashionable topic. At Clarissa’s party, for example, Lady Bradshaw treats the subject almost casually,Show MoreRelatedEssay on Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway1927 Words   |  8 Pagesof a window. The book Mrs. Dalloway’s Theme is to show proper balance in the lives of all characters because Mrs. Dalloway, who chooses a life of safety with Richard, Septimus couldn’t keep stability in his life, and lady burton wants to enforce balance by sending people to Canada. Raised by a privileged English household in 1882, writer Virginia Woolf had freethinking parents (Adeline). Born Kensington, London, England, United Kingdom, January 25, 1882 as Adeline Virginia Stephen never married;Read MoreAnalysis Of Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway1756 Words   |  8 PagesIt is itself doubtable that Virginia Woolf’s 1925 novel Mrs. Dalloway would or even could exist, as we know it today, without T.S. Eliot’s 1922 poem The Waste Land – but what’s near-certain to me now is that Woolf may not have ever even written the character of Septimus Warren Smith, had she not read Eliot’s poem first. Moreover, after going back and reviewing both of these works, the presence of The Waste Land in Septimus, and of Septimus in The Waste Land, are intensely palpable, if not completelyRead MoreAnalysis Of Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway1131 Words   |  5 PagesI, highlights the ineffable aspect of the war even for the most skilled authors, saying that: reviewing a novel in 1917, Virginia Woolf suggested that the War was towering too closely and tremendously to be worked into fiction yet†¦ (Tylee, 154). Regardless of this, Virginia Woolf was able to successfully portray individual aspects of the war through her novel Mrs. Dalloway, using a variety of stories to historicize this catastrophic event. One lens in particular, the love story, provides an importantRead MoreStream of Consciousness in Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway1354 Words   |  5 PagesConsciousness in Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway. â€Å"These novels may very well be within a category we can label stream of consciousness, so long as we know what we are talking about. The evidence reveals that we never do – or never have done so.† (5). (Humphrey, 1954). This quote from Robert Humphrey, author of Stream of Consciousness in the Modern Novel, is about the use of the writing technique, stream of consciousness, in novels such as James Joyce’s Ulysses and Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway; he highlightsRead More Perception is Reality in Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway1976 Words   |  8 Pages Although the entire novel tells of only one day, Virginia Woolf covers a lifetime in her enlightening novel of the mystery of the human personality. The delicate Clarissa Dalloway, a disciplined English lady, provides the perfect contrast to Septimus Warren Smith, an insane ex-soldier living in chaos. Even though the two never meet, these two correspond in that they strive to maintain possession of themselves, of their souls. On this Wednesday in June of 1923, as Clarissa prepares for her partyRead MoreEssay about Issues in Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway630 Words   |  3 PagesIssues in Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway revolves around several of the issues that preoccupied the Bloomsbury writers and thinkers as a group. Issues of androgyny, class, madness, and mythology run throughout the novel. While that is hardly an exhaustive list, these notions seem to form the core of the structure of the novel. Woolf herself, when envisioning the project, sought to produce â€Å"a study of insanity and suicide, the world seen by the sane and the insaneRead MoreThe Importance of Time in Virginia Woolfs Mrs Dalloway.4013 Words   |  17 PagesVirginia Woolfs Mrs Dalloway is a modernist novel, which shows new techniques to express a different point of view with regard to the notion of time. It is not without importance to note that the novel has no chapter headings. Nevertheless it is immediately obvious that the interest of the novel is not only in the form but also in the content. The action takes place in a single day of June in 1923 and what is interesting in the s tructure of the book is that simultaneously with the story of thisRead More The Importance of Time in Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway Essay1603 Words   |  7 PagesThe Importance of Time in Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway We live in a consumer society consuming time. We use time to function smoothly but also to channel the direction of our lives. As a college student, I am constantly aware of time. I have a time frame for finishing my college career, as well as constant deadlines to meet. Daily, I divide my hours between my job, my studies, and my friends. In the midst of following external time, I strive for a balance with my internal time. My personalRead More The Effects of Society in Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway Essay3075 Words   |  13 Pageswhere people are struggling to fit in. Virginia Woolf sees this. Woolf views society as a center for conflict for the characters in her novel. They struggle with the internal dilemma of whether they should be who they want to be or what everyone else wants them to be. In the novel Mrs. Dalloway, Virginia Woolf uses stream of consciousness to demonstrate the pressures and effects of society on different characters in the 1920’s. Using both Clarissa Dalloway and Septimus Smith, Woolf reveals howRead More An Analysis of Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway Essay examples3326 Words   |  14 PagesAnalysis of Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway Somewhere within the narrative of Mrs. Dalloway, there seems to lie what could be understood as a restatement - or, perhaps, a working out of - the essentially simple, key theme or motif found in Woolfs famous feminist essay A Room of Ones Own. Mrs. Dalloway does in fact possess a room of her own - and enjoys an income (or the use of an income) that is at least five hundred a year - (Room: 164). But most importantly, Clarissa Dalloway also deals

Friday, December 27, 2019

In Search of Respect Guide - 1351 Words

Anthropology 11 – Cultural Anthropology In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio General and Introduction What is Bourgois main argument in this book? How does he go about making it, step by step? Is it convincing? Why?/Why not? What is cultural capital? How does this concept explain the experiences of people from El Barrio-in school? at work? in business? in the legal system? How do you think Bourgois ethnography balances structure and agency? What are the functions of street culture? How have other social scientists interpreted inner city culture? How does Bourgois disagree with them? What does it mean to talk about a survival-of-the-fittest,†¦show more content†¦How do the perpetrators attempt to justify their actions? How can this be seen as part of male socialization? How does Bourgois interpret the Graffiti Hall of Fame? Chapter 6-Redrawing the Gender Line on the Street How have gender roles and masculine and feminine identities changed for the residents of El Barrio since their parents came over from Puerto Rico? What are the structural explanations underlying those changes? How can we see these changes in the different attitudes of Ray s andShow MoreRelated Sufi Teachers and Redefining the Traditional Student-Teacher Relationship1688 Words   |  7 Pagesthose individuals who use education as a means to reach their objective. For them, education is not a straight line with a definitive start and finish. It is a journey full of crossroads and choices, which require direction from a guide. For a student, the teacher is that guide. The teacher teaches the student how to find the right way in his journey and from time to time, help redefine students objective. The teachers role in a students journey is a central issue for a fruitful education. A teachersRead MoreLimited Liability Company ( Llc ) And Joint Venture1439 Words   |  6 Pagesamong the p roprietors. Also, adaptability with respect to how profit and management authority are resolved (Oon, 2012). Shania would need to go into an extremely detailed agreement that spells out every one of the subtle elements of the business. The Colorado Limited Liability Company Act was received in 1990. An LLC consolidates the concepts of organizations for tax purposes and corporations for liability purposes (The Colorado Business Resource Guide). On the off chance that Shania decide to openRead MoreWeb Analysis : Google Analytics765 Words   |  4 Pages this gives the ability to improve the on-site user experience which helps one achieve their business objectives. The services include online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing, and software. Most of its profits are derived from Ad Words, an online advertising service that places advertising near the list of search results. Google Analytics also helps us to learn what people are looking for and what they like with in- page Analytics and then with that help we can tailor our marketingRead MoreEssay on Dreams That Never Come1122 Words   |  5 Pagesunderstanding how to get around like renting a good apartment is filled with obstacles. She needs to understand the purpose and systems in paying for bills, and finding a safe and affordable apartment. Faeza was not able to find solace until there were guides that helped her into choosing a safe neighborhood to ren t a home and supplied her with basic necessities(Benntt 40). Tiwari is another man who although is ready to work hard to earn a living, is held back because he has no form of transportation (Griffin)Read MoreMy Philosophy Of Education And The Principalship Over The Past Twelve Years973 Words   |  4 PagesI am excited and humbled to begin a magnificent journey with all of you to educate our children. I want to share with you my administrative and educational philosophies, which will guide our work together for the children of Muskegon. Administrative philosophy I have developed my philosophy of education and the principalship over the past twelve years. These years have given me a healthy and balanced perspective from which to construct effective programs to improve and support student learningRead MoreQuestions On Reason And Faith1357 Words   |  6 Pagesourselves in our everyday lives, consumed by mundane task and the world around us, that we fail to see the bigger picture, which then leads us astray wondering what is missing in our lives. So by knowing ourselves, using our reason and letting faith guide us we enter into a greater picture of being, where we find meaning in life and in one another. From the very beginning of our creation we see how truly curious man is, to the point of his own fall. This continues to drive many of our lives down aRead MoreGoogle Case Study746 Words   |  3 PagesGermany, Japan 1. How does a search engine work and make money? What is the exportability of a search engine’s technology and business model? Google, the world’s largest search engine provides simple, fast and relevant search results by using PageRank technology that displays results by detecting the keywords inside web pages and determining the importance of a search result based on the number and popularity of other sites that linked to the page. Google Search provides at least 22 special featuresRead MorePlanning a Mobile Robot in Static and Dynamic Environments1086 Words   |  4 Pages Introduction 1.1 Introduction:- In this Research develops and implements a Genetic Algorithm based approach with a Grid search method for path planning for a mobile robot in Static and dynamic environments. The approach uses the search of the static and dynamic obstacles as search space. Using the Grid search method, it searches an initial feasible path for the robot in the environment. In an environment with obstacles, a mobile robot must be able to generate collisionRead MoreHist 415 Week 1 Homework Essay733 Words   |  3 Pagesoutcome of the most likely courses of action. History is a good guide to track many different trends. So, understanding what history means is can be very useful in explaining why it is important to study and learn from. When studying history the best resources that will be the most helpful to the student of history are Search engines on the internet. Search engines are helpful when researching historical facts. Google and Yahoo provide search suggestions if help is needed forming questio ns. Google ScholarRead MoreHierarchy of Evidence in the Research Process1385 Words   |  6 Pagesto meet its goals (Palinkas   Soydan, 2011). With reference to the reliability of evidences in the research process, the evidences are usually recognized in hierarchies. These hierarchies of reliability are typically used by the researchers as a guide in order to make the evidences effective so that the conclusions can be drawn according to the objectives of the research study (Palinkas   Soydan, 2011). Hierarchies of evidences can simply be explained as a system of ranking of evidences that the

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Soldiers Home By Ernest Hemingway Analysis - 873 Words

Never before had so many soldiers faced psychological disorder after a war as soldiers in World War I faced. Soldiers now had issues when returning from war with their mental health and suffered severe side effects from the war. How someone changes from before war, during war, to returning home from war is demonstrated in â€Å"Soldier’s Home†. In Ernest Hemingway’s modernist short story, â€Å"Soldier’s Home,† the passage of time from before World War I to after, demonstrates the psychological damage war had done on the central character, Krebs, after he returns and has to adjust back to everyday life and making personal relationships. Before enlisting in World War I, Krebs behavior was the same as any normal teenager and he had the ability to†¦show more content†¦When explaining why he liked the girls in France and Germany better than the girls back at home, Krebs says, â€Å"That was the thing about French girls and German girls. There was not all this talking. You couldn’t talk much and you did not need to talk† (2). During the war, Krebs lost the drive he once had to create real relationships and he began to prefer not having to communicate with people. This is a result of the hardships he had to go through throughout war and the losses he was forced to face, which resulted in him not wanting to develop a serious relationship again; this was in fear that he would then continue to feel the pain of loosing someone. Psychologically, his mind became very distant over the course of his time in war. This is revealed when Krebs is back at home and reading about the war; the narrator says,  "Now he was really learning about the war. He had been a good soldier. That made a difference† (2). Mentally, the war was so challenging, that he ended up blocking parts out, so he would not have to face them and have it be a reality. Once Krebs returned home from war, the status of his mental health and his failure to make personal relationships revealed the negative impact war had had on him. When asked by his mother if he still loved her after war, his response, â€Å"No, Krebs said...I don’t love anybody† (4). He no longer is able to love another person because he is so psychologically and mentally unstable that he cannot express that kind ofShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of Literary Devices in Soldiers Home Essay951 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Soldier’s Home by Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemingway â€Å"Soldier’s Home is an outstanding short story that shows the tragic impact of war on the life of a young soldier who returns home. The story paints a vibrant picture of a soldier’s life after coming back from a shocking experience. Hemingway shows impacts of war on a soldier with the main character being Harold Krebs, who faces hostility in his hometown after his return from fighting in the war. The main character in the story is Kreb withRead MoreIn Another Country1453 Words   |  6 Pages`In Another Country` By E. Hemingway `In Another Country` by E. Hemingway Hemingway creates a powerful and true-to-life story about real experience of many soldiers who came home but remember all casualties and hardship they were faced with during the WWI. On the other hand, their stories full of bravery, honor and courage. They need to adapt to new world, but the only way for them is to change their habits and personal values. Settings and objects reflect inner psychological state of the charactersRead MoreA Soldiers Home Setting Analysis Essay examples707 Words   |  3 Pages2012 A Soldier’s Home: Setting Analysis In Ernest Hemingway’s short story â€Å"A Soldier’s Home†, Krebs, a soldier, returns to his hometown from fighting in World War I. As indicated throughout the story, â€Å"home† for Krebs is not unlike the war front: confusing, complicated, and restless. Hemingway uses the setting in Kansas, during World War I, to convey Krebs post-war life in comparison to his pre-war. The title â€Å"Soldiers Home† reveals the question; where is the soldier’s home? In the short storyRead More Comparing Loss of Self in Soldiers Home, Pauls Case, and Bartleby1442 Words   |  6 PagesLoss of Self in Hemingways Soldiers Home, Cathers Pauls Case, and Melvilles Bartleby the Scrivener  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   Hemingways Soldiers Home, Cathers Pauls Case, and Melvilles Bartleby the Scrivener all present a loss of self. These stories prove that there is a fine line between finding ones self and losing ones self. I believe this loss can occur at any age or station of life. This idea is seen in each storys main character. Hemingways Soldiers Home depicts a young man in hisRead MoreAnalysis On The Farewell Of Arms By Ernest Hemingway1101 Words   |  5 PagesThe book I chose to do my analysis on was A Farewell to Arms, written by Ernest Hemingway in 1929. It has a first person narrative and is told by American ambulance driver Frederic Henry who finds love in the form of a nurse named Catherine Barkley all while the first world war is happening in the background. The story almost serves as a biographical piece on Hemingway himself as many of the events and experiences in it are inspired by real life ones that affected him. He did fight in World War 1Read MoreEssay about Analysis of Style and Theme in Works by Ernest Hemingway3088 Words   |  13 PagesAnalysis of Style and Theme in Works by Ernest Hemingway This research paper will analyze style and theme in two of Ernest Hemingways short stories, The Snows of Kilimanjaro and The Big Two-Hearted River, and two novels, The Sun Also Rises and Green Hills of Africa.1 The Snows of Kilimanjaro is about an author named Harry, who is lying on the African plain and dying of gangrene. The Big Two-Hearted River is about an ex-World War I soldier, Nick, who is trying to put his life backRead MoreThe Role Of Fascism, And Background Of Ernest Hemingway2736 Words   |  11 Pagesthink about it? Is it the constituent battle killing soldiers left and right or the unsanitary conditions the soldiers lived in? It’s safe to say World War I was one of the bloodiest battles of the 19th century, killing approximately 8 million soldiers in battle, and wounding a little over 21 million. Although this event is discussed widely throughout the country some don’t realize what all was involved with the war. Not only did the soldiers put their lives on the line but many individuals suchRead More Differing Perspectives of Life in A Clean, Well-Lighted Place, By Hemingway1557 Words   |  7 PagesPlace A Clean, Well-Lighted Place was written by Hemingway in 1933.   It details an evenings interaction between two waiters, and their differing perspectives of life.   Hemingway uses an old man as a patron to demonstrate the waiters philosophies. Hemingway is also visible in the story as the old man, someone who society says should be content, but has a significant empty feeling inside. This essay will present a line-by-line analysis, with emphasis on the philosophies of the waiters. Read More Comparing James Joyces Araby and Ernest Hemingways A Clean, Well-Lighted Place1363 Words   |  6 PagesComparing James Joyces Araby and Ernest Hemingways A Clean, Well-Lighted Place As divergent as James Joyces Araby and Ernest Hemingways A Clean, Well-Lighted Place are in style, they handle many of the same themes. Both stories explore hope, anguish, faith, and despair. While Araby depicts a youth being set up for his first great disappointment, and A Clean, Well-Lighted Place shows two older men who have long ago settled for despair, both stories use a number of analogous symbolsRead MoreThe Lost Generation Analysis1251 Words   |  6 Pagesrefers to a group of, American writers who, came of age, while the country was in the throes of WW1. The term was coined by Gertrude Stein and popularized by, Ernest Hemingway, (Figure 1) and is meant to refer to the fact that the values it inherited, held little relevance in the postwar world, (Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica). Figure 1 Ernest Hemingway shown at his typewriter in a 1939 image. The war years proved to be a pivotal experience in the lives of many of these writers. Much of what had been

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Introduction Essay Thesis Example For Students

Introduction Essay Thesis William Randolph Hearst was by far one of the most successful and accomplished entrepreneurs in the publishing industry as well as the general business world. His contributions to American Society include innovative business ideas and methods practiced by his publications. He was a great leader, husband and father, and pioneer in mass media and journalism. His name can now be seen on General BiographyWilliam was born on April 29, 1863 in San Francisco. His father, George Hearst, was a rancher, miner, and U.S. Senator and his mother, Phoebe, was a school teacher and philanthropist. His parents were multimillionares and were involved with publications before William was born. William grew up as a trouble maker and was very sly in schools he attended. He played many practical jokes wherever he was. William attended Harvard University where he managed the student comic magazine called The Lampoon. He was expelled from school in 1885 because of a practical joke he played. At the time, Geo rge was running a local newspaper, the San Francisco Examiner, which was given to him as payment for a gambling debt. He was too busy as a California senator so he decided to give the paper to William who had asked to take over the Examiner. Hoping William would temporarily manage the paper and soon become a rancher and miner, George handed him the paper on March 7, 1887. William spent many hours a day and a lot of energy working on the paper, trying to prove he wasnt just a joker. At age 23 he proved to many that he could make the small daily newspaper a success.This began his career in publishing. In 1895, William moved to New York City and bought the New York Journal and made it a success. New York became the headquarters for the Hearst Corporation. He competed directly with The (New York) World which was published by Joseph Pulitzer. Soon he purchased other papers and magazines. Thirty years after managing the Examiner, William owned 25 daily newspapers and magazines. The Hearst eagle became his trademark. He started the International News Service in 1909 to help reporting for all the publications. Because he started out in comics, he led the industry in making color comics in newspapers. Other contributions included banner headlines and editorials serving the interest of consumers. In the 1920s, he became involved with radio broadcasting and in the 1940s entered into television broadcasting. Hearst Metrotone News produced movie newsreels. William became known as The Chief. He contributed many editorial guidelines to the publishing industry.Not only did William have an excit ing life as an entrepreneur, he also was heavily involved in politics. From 1903 to 1907, he was a House representative for New York. In 1904, he actually ran for the mayor, governor, and nomination for president. All efforts were unsuccessful. In 1903, William married Millicent Willson. William had a family of five sons who all became executives in Hearst Newspapers, Inc. One of his sons, William Randolph Hearst, Jr. became a Pulitzer prize winner in 1956. And in 1974, Patricia Hearst, Williams granddaughter, was kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army. This led to one of the biggest police searches ever in American history. She was later forced to join the army and was found and arrested for her actions. Years later she was released from prison by President Carter. William died on August 14, 1951 at age 88 in Beverly Hills. He left behind his famous estate, Hearst Castle, located in San Simeon, California. The estate stretches 50 miles along the Pacific coast and includes 240,000 acres of land, 4 castles, and many priceless sculptures and paintings. The estate is now a California state park.Timeline of Business TransactionsBusiness MethodsHearst Corporation TodayConclusion

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The ethical issues of Genetic Engineering

Introduction Genetic engineering is a scientific achievement that has led to the development of new ethical issues. Genetic engineering has been a subject of controversy because a lot of people are not comfortable with the technology.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The ethical issues of Genetic Engineering specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The ethical issues are more evident when it comes to cases of genetic engineering on the human tissue. Historically, the process has been conducted in the west. It has become easier to conduct genetic engineering in plants, animals, and humans due to developments in science. A case study to consider in the relationship between science and ethics is Argentina. The government allowed several manufactures of genetically modified (GM) seeds to operate within the country due to increasing debts. The manufacturers were given permits and the produced seeds were supplied to farmers for free. The seeds were of a wide variety, including maize, soya, and sunflower. GM soya seeds became common and the country was able to export its soya produce within a short while (Burachik, 2012). Thus, the government was able to gain through this strategy. Despite this, ethical questions arose about whether the decision made could be considered moral or not. The ethical questions arising from science are based on two concepts. The first concept is whether science is a danger in itself. The knowledge that arises from science can be a risk (Griffiths Stotz, 2013). Secondly, an ethical issue arises based on what the long-term effects of science might be. The idea of improving nature is considered to be a dangerous choice. Thus, it is unethical to change nature. It is easier to establish the ethical argument by raising an extrinsic question that is related to the long-term effects of GM crops makes.Advertising Looking for essay on engineering? Let's see if we can help you! Get y our first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, such a question will be able to inform whether a choice can be considered to be ethical or not. The consequences that arise from the decision are also looked at in detail. Different results may be achieved. Determining whether the choice taken is ethical depends on weighing both options. An option that has more positive consequences is always considered to be ethical and ideal to choose. In Argentina’s case, the ethical nature of its actions was defined by the financial costs involved. The country was to gain more from the decision to grow GM crops. Historical context For a long time, science was not considered to be a concept that could be tied to ethical considerations. This changed and the social, political, individual, and practical effects were discussed in many forums dealing with the philosophy of science. Genetic engineering is a science that has the highest potential of changing human lives. Historically, genetic engineering has led to the development of new ethical arguments because GM crops have varied implications that can affect a country as a whole. In Argentina, the government was able to increase its imports and employ more people in the agricultural sector (Burachik, 2012). Scientific research has always enjoyed independence when it comes to the expected results. Thus, scientists could conduct any experiment they wanted as long as they were not limited by funds. It is during the 1980s that it was realized that scientific research should be restricted. The restriction also considered how science should be limited and within what limits (Light De-Shalit, 2003). It is easier to know the consequences of genetic engineering through rational means. Initially, genetic engineering was witnessed within the field of agriculture.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The ethical issues of Genetic Engineering specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It was conducted to increase food production by producing better crops that could survive harsh weather conditions. Later, it also involved human genetic engineering. Thus, there was a need to consider the ethical implications of genetic engineering (Stock Campbell, 2000). Political context Genetically modified crops always raise political issues. The debate is hotter where the crops are made for human consumption. A political issue arises on whether to let the crops into the country or not. Many people have questioned the health risks that arise from genetically modified crops, thus it is the politicians who have to ensure that the interests of the people are met and their safety is assured (Haugen, 2013). GM crops are usually cheaper and have high yields when planted. This is advantageous because it is an economic advantage to a country and its citizens. Various negative issues arise, despite the advantages of GM crops because the growth of GM crops intensifies pres sure on unspoiled nature areas such as forests and grasslands. GM crops tend to easily adapt into many environmental conditions, thus large tracts of land are set to maximize on the benefits (Burachik, 2012). The growth of GM crops affects various political aims within a country. In many countries, nature conservation is the duty of the government. In Argentina’s case, the growth of soya became a political issue due to the land that was required for its growth. Its growth spread so rapidly that more than 14 million hectares of land were covered by the crop within two years.Advertising Looking for essay on engineering? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government established policies that allowed for the eviction of people from the land that was considered suitable for agricultural production after the establishment of the nation state of Argentina in 1853. Moreover, an economic model was also adopted to encourage exportation and acquisition of foreign aid. The government was also involved in the acquisition of permits to plant GM crops comprising of soya, cotton, sunflower, potatoes, maize, and wheat. Neither the public nor the Congress was informed about this decision. Thus, it can be seen that political problems would have emerged if this policy was considered by Congress or the public. Moreover, the government also considered the ethical issues that would have come up due to this policy. Thus, they chose not to divulge the information about the permits (Burachik, 2012). The commission set by the government to consider biotechnology was comprised of representatives from biotechnology companies. This scenario would not come up with appropriate ethical considerations because most of representatives wanted growth of GM crops just for personal profits. Political implications always arise due to GM foods. Such crops can have negative implications within a state. In Argentina’s case, the crops began to take larger tracts of land. There was a risk of social justice being compromised because the government did not care about the implications of the GM crops. Exports from soya were sufficient to pay back its debts, thus the government saw no need to establish better policies to control the growth of GM crops. The citizens also gained due to this decision, thus it was in the best interest of the country. On the other hand, an individualized contract-based ethics arises whereby the production of GM crops is against nature. Thus, the government should not be involved in the production of GM crops because they interfere with nature (Laurie, 2002). GM crops usually tend to use methods that pollute the enviro nment. Growth of GM crops involves use of advanced agricultural practices. In Argentina’s case, farmers were given both seeds and fertilizers to grow the crops. These fertilizers had health risks and they polluted the environment in the long run. Moreover, less efficient eco-farming strategies were promoted. The methods used for agricultural production used various methods that facilitated increased productivity. Conservation of biodiversity also became an issue. GM plants have an accelerated growth rate, thus they can encroach on a large piece of land within a short time. The fertilizers and chemicals used may also affect the surrounding plants and animals. For instance, ploughed grasslands can lead to loss of important biodiversity. The other risks involved were theoretical in nature. The government’s decision can be seen as unethical if questions are raised about the potential risks GM crops have on humans. Information in this regard could only be obtained through e mpirical means. Experimentation and experience were the best means to establish this information (Barry, 2011). Cultivation of genetic crops also leads to spread of genetic engineering. This becomes an ethical issue for countries that have not legalized the importation or sale of GM crops. Such fears are usually faced by government agencies dealing with rural development. GM crops require modern methods of agricultural production, thus people in rural areas will lose their source of income if GM crops are promoted. Social context The social impacts of GM foods are always considered before permits are given to develop the foods in most western countries. Other food crops can also be affected through jumping genes and pollen flight. This can lead to disastrous consequences, such a limiting food production in the future. Thus, a democratic decision should be reached through public debate about the implications of GM crops. Establishing a green genetic engineering strategy would be an e ffective step to begin with (Derr McNamara, 2003). The ethical implications within the society arise based on how people will be affected. In Argentina, the government’s decisions can be considered as illegal, but they were ethical to an extent. The government’s decisions, though not revealed to the public, were for the greater good of the public. Socially, there were gains and losses expected. GM crops are used at the expense of natural crops. Intensive research is usually done to come up with GM crops. Thus, natural plants will lose their role in life if GM foods. It is a societal obligation to preserve nature. If GM crops are allowed to flourish, then the society will lose its role in protecting nature (Bennett et al., 2013). Ethical evaluation Philosophers in the western world have been interested in the development and systemization of the sciences in relation to genetic engineering. There are two general thoughts that have been used to explain how the actions ar e viewed. These are the utilitarian and Aristotelian thoughts. Aristotelian uses the belief of good reason to bring out the forces that influence the direction of the actions. Good reasons are always given to explain the reason behind an action, or an event (Light De-Shalit, 2003). An ultimate goal is always pursued, thus less credit is given to the negative effects of the action. Such a scenario can be seen with genetic engineering. The larger picture shows that genetic engineering has negative consequences. Thus, genetic engineers try to show that the process is beneficial and done with good intentions. The goals already achieved through genetic engineering have been helpful to the human race. It is for this reason that genetic engineering has grown and evolved over the years. Many people ignore the greater consequences of the process. It is as a result of this realization that it becomes important to consider the ethical implications of genetic engineering. There is always an ev aluation of the reasons explaining what genetic engineering seeks to achieve and the product of the process (Reiss Straughan, 2001). One the other hand, utilitarian beliefs do not consider the actions of an individual as resulting from either good or bad decisions, but only with a maximization of the agent’s abilities. This can be applied to genetic engineering where one can view genetic engineering as using knowledge to its maximum. In Argentina’s case, the actions were not specifically for good or bad reasons. The activities were conducted to ensure that maximum gains were achieved from the knowledge of genetic engineering. Thus, ethical concerns on GM crops arise depending on the implications of GM crops and not the use genetic engineering. A closer analysis of the field of science would reveal that people always depend on their practical knowledge. This is then utilized when making a judgment on whether something is good or bad. Ethical considerations are sometime s based on established norms within the society (Frey Wellman, 2007). Norms are able to describe what rules are applicable within different contexts. The ethical considerations arising from genetic engineering relate to norms within the society. It determines how certain beliefs are upheld at the expense of other beliefs. It is hard to accept genetic engineering as ethical if the basis of the science is irrational. The goals of science can be equated to the goals of life. For both concepts, the end involves improvement of human life (Reiss Straughan, 2001). Problems are bound to arise more often in cases of cash crops that grow at the expense of food crops. Genetic modification is allowed on cash crops because of their economic importance. Ethical questions Scientists usually view ethics as essential to their practice and identity. Despite this, their ethical beliefs can change according to current conditions in society. Thus, an ethical risk can arise from GM crops whereby it cou ld lead to increased research on genetic engineering on humans (Mizzoni, 2010). Ethical questions also arise on whether it is necessary to genetically modify crops. Naturally, such crops can grow in some environments. The use of genetic engineering makes the process cheaper because crops are made adaptable to different environments and to yield better products. Though it is cheaper, the negative consequences of this decision can be realized in future. In the case study, new types of pests have appeared because of the genetically modified crops. Initially, it was thought that such an attack would not occur. This only proves that GM crops are not always the best option (Burachik, 2012). Many of the ethical and moral debates have followed a one-dimensional strategy whereby they are concerned with a single and a specific application of genetic engineering. Human application of this technology has been given significant coverage in comparison to GM crops. Research on the implications of genetic engineering on animals, plants, and microorganisms has been largely overlooked. If GM crops are encouraged, then the future will be bleak where most food, animals, or humans will be genetically modified (Nordgren, 2001). Moral and ethical concerns are effective in controlling public opinion. The public will not easily support an idea if it is considered immoral. Thus, concerns have developed that various biotechnology techniques would fail if not given public acceptance. Philosophy has been used in the explanation of nature and how to interact with it. An important example is the stoic philosophy that describes that humans have to live with nature as it is (Mizzoni, 2010). It is morally wrong for humans to interfere with nature for their own benefit. Genetic engineering is seen as the most effective way to interfere with nature because genetic materials are the basic structures that comprise humans, plants, and animals. The human body and its parts can be seen as a system th at works in unison. The different parts play different roles to establish a balance in the human body. The same can be said about nature. Each aspect of nature has its own role to play. Thus, a balance is established to facilitate the survival of man and his dependence on nature. If nature were to be reconfigured through genetic engineering, then there would be a loss of this balance. For instance, genetic modification in humans can result in the production of a superhuman. If such a human procreates, then it would lead to a situation where more people have genetically engineered genes resulting from his offspring (Yashon Cummings, 2012). Thus, a problem may exist within the individual’s genetic pool and researchers are not aware. The same can be said about GM crops. Their use may result in negative consequences as the case was in Argentina whereby new strains of pests emerged. A survey conducted in the UK to determine public opinion about GM crops found that 70 percent of t he total respondents considered it morally wrong. Thus, globally, the beliefs on genetic engineering depend on individual values. People tend to believe that biotechnology is wrong. In some cases, this is attributed to lack of knowledge of how genetic modification is done. For most people, they consider the issues that can arise from GM crops to be the same with genetic modification of humans (Haugen, 2013). The decision to depend on ethics may have negative consequences as well. Something may be considered unethical, but it can lead to improvements. Conclusion In conclusion, genetic engineering is a scientific breakthrough that has led to developments in biotechnology. Growth and consumption of GM crops have been on the increase, despite little regard for the consequences. Thus, ethical issues arise as people try to determine whether GM crops are good or bad for humans. Genetic engineering can have very many dangers, but such fears will reduce once it is realized that everything ha s the potential to be harmful. Thus, the issues arising due to GM crops can be related to the ethical issues resulting from science. Reference List Barry, VE 2011, Bioethics: At the beginning and end of life, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA. Bennett, AB, Chi-Ham, C, Barrows, G, Sexton, S, Zilberman, D, 2013, ‘Agricultural biotechnology: economics, environment, ethics, and the future,’ Annual Review of Environment Resources, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 249-279. Burachik, M 2012, ‘Regulation of GM crops in Argentina’, GM Crops Food, vol. 3, no.1, pp. 48-51. Derr, PG. McNamara, EM 2003, Case studies in environmental ethics, Rowman Littlefield, Lanham, MD. Frey, RG, Wellman, CH 2007, A companion to applied ethics, John Wiley Sons, Oxford. Griffiths, P, Stotz, K 2013. Genetics and philosophy : an introduction, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. Haugen, H M 2013, ‘Human rights in natural science and technology professions’ codes of ethics?’, Bus iness Professional Ethics Journal, vol. 32, no. 1/2, pp. 49-76. Laurie, GT 2002, Genetic privacy : a challenge to medico-legal norms, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. Light, A, De-Shalit, A, 2003, Moral and political reasoning in environmental practice, MIT, Cambridge, MA Mizzoni, J 2010, Ethics: the basics, Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK. Nordgren, A, 2001, Responsible genetics: the moral responsibility of geneticists for the consequences of human genetics research, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA Reiss, MJ, Straughan, R 2001, Improving nature?: the science and ethics of genetic engineering, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. Stock, G, Campbell, JH, 2000, Engineering the human germline: an exploration of the science and ethics of altering the genes we pass to our children, Oxford University Press, New York, NY. Yashon, RK, Cummings, MR 2012, Human genetics and society, 2nd ed, Brooks/Cole, Belmont, MA. This essay on The ethical issues of Genetic Engineering was written and submitted by user Amber F. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.